European countries demographics data

European Population Demographics in 2023: Insights and Analysis

Europe's diverse demographic landscape presents unique opportunities and challenges for policymakers, businesses, and researchers. This blog post explores the demographic data of various European countries as of 2023, focusing on population size, density, age structure, and working-age populations. We'll also highlight how geodemographic datasets, like those available from Geolocet, can be instrumental in such analyses.

Top 10 Most Populated Countries

Country Total Population
Germany 83,237,124
France 65,834,810
United Kingdom 68,253,945
Italy 58,870,799
Spain 45,136,295
Ukraine 40,997,698
Poland 37,770,012
Netherlands 17,811,291
Belgium 11,686,134
Greece 10,369,839

The most populated countries in Europe are key players in both the regional and global economy. Germany and France lead the list, significantly contributing to Europe's demographic and economic landscape. The United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain also have large populations, which impact their labor markets, consumer bases, and policy decisions.

Top 10 Countries with Highest Population Density

Country Population Density (per km²)
Monaco 17,944.25
Malta 1,698.62
Guernsey 983.51
Jersey 866.51
Netherlands 428.79
Belgium 380.93
United Kingdom 279.38
Luxembourg 254.79
Liechtenstein 247.45
Germany 233.13

High population density often indicates urbanization and economic development. Monaco and Malta's extremely high densities highlight their small land areas combined with significant urban populations. The Netherlands and Belgium, with their advanced infrastructure and economies, also have high densities, necessitating efficient urban planning and resource management.

Top 10 Countries with Youngest Populations

Country Population 0-14 (%)
Kosovo 28%
Ireland 20%
Moldova 18%
Iceland 18%
Norway 17%
France 17%
Belgium 17%
Ukraine 15%
Isle of Man 15%
Liechtenstein 15%

Countries with younger populations, like Kosovo and Ireland, may have a growing labor force and potential for future economic growth. However, they also face challenges in providing adequate education, healthcare, and employment opportunities for their youthful demographics.

Top 10 Countries with Oldest Populations

Country Population 65+ (%)
Monaco 26%
Italy 24%
Bulgaria 24%
Finland 23%
Portugal 23%
Greece 23%
Germany 22%
Croatia 22%
Isle of Man 22%
Serbia 22%

Countries with older populations, such as Monaco and Italy, face significant challenges related to healthcare, pensions, and social services for their elderly citizens. These countries must balance the needs of their aging populations with economic sustainability.

Top 10 Countries by Working-Age Population

Country Population 15-64 (%)
Andorra 73%
Montenegro 68%
Luxembourg 67%
Netherlands 64%
Germany 64%
Czechia 64%
Austria 64%
Norway 64%
Slovakia 66%
Moldova 66%

Countries with high percentages of working-age populations, like Andorra and Montenegro, benefit from a potentially strong labor force driving economic productivity. These nations have an advantage in terms of economic growth and labor market dynamism but must also ensure that there are enough jobs and opportunities to employ this segment effectively.

Top 10 Countries with Lowest Population

Country Total Population
Monaco 36,296
Liechtenstein 39,689
Guernsey 64,090
Andorra 85,100
Isle of Man 87,176
Jersey 103,267
Iceland 387,758
Malta 536,351
Montenegro 642,332
Luxembourg 660,809

Smaller countries like Monaco and Liechtenstein have unique demographic and economic profiles, often characterized by high GDP per capita and specialized economies. Their small populations can mean more manageable social services but also limited labor markets and consumer bases.

Top 10 Countries with Lowest Population Density

Country Population Density (per km²)
Iceland 3.78
Finland 15.59
Norway 16.90
Sweden 23.61
Latvia 29.06
Estonia 30.41
Lithuania 43.77
Belarus 45.17
Montenegro 47.07
Bulgaria 58.10

Countries with low population density, like Iceland and Finland, often face challenges related to infrastructure development and service delivery across vast and sometimes remote areas. However, they may benefit from abundant natural resources and less crowded urban centers

Top 10 Countries with Lowest Young Population

Country Population 0-14 (%)
Italy 12%
Portugal 13%
Greece 13%
Malta 13%
Germany 14%
Spain 14%
Croatia 14%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 14%
Belarus 14%
Czechia 16%

Countries with lower percentages of young populations, like Italy and Portugal, may face future labor shortages and increased pressure on social support systems for the elderly. These countries need to consider policies that support family growth and youth opportunities.


Europe's demographic landscape is complex and varied, with each country presenting unique characteristics and challenges. From densely populated urban centers to sparsely populated rural areas, and from youthful nations to those with aging populations, the data provides valuable insights into the socio-economic fabric of the continent. Understanding these demographics is crucial for policymakers, businesses, and researchers to make informed decisions and develop strategies that address the specific needs of different regions.

Call to Action

For a deeper dive into the demographic details of each European country, visit our Geolocet Europe Geodemographics Dataset product page. Here, you can download a free sample to explore the comprehensive data we offer at the municipality level, including age and gender distribution and population density. Our datasets are meticulously curated to provide you with the most accurate and up-to-date demographic insights. Don't miss out on the opportunity to enhance your research, business strategy, or policy-making process with our detailed geodemographic data. Visit the product page today and get your copy!

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